LEED Platinum in Hawaii

At Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, the Air National Guard’s first LEED Platinum project exemplifies the innovative and extensive sustainability initiatives that are possible in flightline facilities.

 

By Mark Zimmerman, P.E., DBIA, LEED AP, M.SAME 

 


 

The Hawaii Air National Guard’s (HIANG) 19th and 199th Fighter Squadrons recently transitioned to fifth-generation F-22 Raptor jets, requiring new support structures to replace the 1960s-era facilities at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam. Equal parts sustainability and flexibility were at the forefront of planning for the beddown.

With a clear design objective, a Burns & McDonnell team of architects and engi­neers set out to create adaptable cornerstone architecture that focused on sustainable practices relevant to island construction, to prioritize resource conservation and energy security, and to consider long-term operat­ing costs while efficiently housing opera­tions and maintenance for the squadrons.

 

ON TIME AND UNDER BUDGET

The new 77,000-ft² Daniel K. Inouye Fighter Squadron Operations and Aircraft Maintenance Facility was completed in January 2014—on schedule and under budget. The project includes three main components: an open-bay maintenance hangar for six F-22 aircraft; a two-story administrative area; and a single-story flightline maintenance shop.

The facility earned 54 points for LEED Platinum certification. It surpassed the U.S. Green Building Council’s minimum for the Platinum level thanks largely to sustainability efforts aimed toward a Net Zero energy goal, which will reduce both current and projected long-term energy costs for HIANG.

Pilots and squadron operations person­nel who would be working in the new facilities were involved in charrettes from the beginning, lending their insights into how the facility would be used to inform the concepts for design and utility needs.

Moreover, work on the project had to accommodate significant mission activi­ties with aircraft in place and adhere to a need for the facility to be operational before construction was finished. It was a truly collaborative effort.

 LEED Platinum Hawaii ANG project

The new 77,000-ft² Daniel K. Inouye Fighter Squadron Operations and Aircraft Maintenance Facility includes three main components: an open-bay maintenance hangar for six F-22 aircraft; a two-story administrative area; and a single-story flightline maintenance shop. PHOTOS COURTESY BURNS & MCDONNELL


 

PUTTING THE CLIMATE TO WORK

Starting with the physical location, Burns & McDonnell recognized the unique geol­ogy of both the region and site. Given the site’s exposure to high winds and seismic activity, the team aligned those consid­erations in the design and engineering phases to ensure the new facility would meet requirements. Careful construction methods also were implemented to take archaeological finds into consideration. This required close coordination between an on-site archaeologist and the state historical office.

Because of the remote Pacific location, Burns & McDonnell sourced local materials when possible to reduce costs and planned for four to six weeks of lead time for mainland-sourced supplies. Architectural features take advantage of the Hawaiian environment and climate while bolstering energy efficiency.

Regional signatures are incorporated into the design, including hip rooflines, window sunshades, deep overhangs, lanai space and trellised exterior break areas. The building is oriented to maximize passive solar opportunities through south-facing glazing with deep overhangs and open lanais for natural ventilation. In the building envelope, engineers used high R-value insulation combined with deep overhangs, shading devices and glazing to minimize the solar heat gain and reduce cooling loads.

HVAC efficiencies include occupancy controls and sensors, underfloor air distri­bution, building management systems, a variable air volume system and high-efficiency chilled water. The hangar bay features translucent panels and a reflective resinous coating on the concrete floor to maximize daylighting. As a result, more than 75 percent of occupied spaces in the facility take advantage of natural daylight. Lighting power densities have been reduced through energy-efficient fixtures and the use of low ambient levels with supplemental task lighting. Automatic controls respond to daylight and occupancy sensors. The power from on-site photovoltaic panels is expected to offset 60 percent of the build­ing’s annual electrical costs.

Using the natural settings as benefits, the team designed several elements to reduce the overall lifecycle cost of the facility. The flexible design also includes office spaces with raised floors and demountable wall structures. This enables rapid reconfigura­tion to support current and future missions.

  


  
Architectural features take advantage of the Hawaiian environment and climate while bolstering energy efficiency. 


 

NET ZERO ASPIRATIONS

With a focus on features that maximize the natural resources, the sustainability initiatives implemented will make signifi­cant strides toward a long-term Net Zero energy goal. An integrated design effort reduced energy use by 72 percent through conservation, as compared to the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 baseline design. Solar power is generated through photovoltaic arrays on the roof and parking canopy, offsetting elec­trical costs by 60 percent. A roof-mounted solar hot water system is anticipated to provide 54 percent of the water heating demand. Low-flow fixtures reduce water use by 47 percent. Recurring operations and maintenance costs will be trimmed through long-life materials, lighting and mechanical systems.

Waste during construction was mini­mized through salvage and recycling. Stemming from a charrette goal for 100 percent waste elimination, 94 percent of demolition/construction waste was diverted from landfills. Recycled concrete from a demolished taxiway, for example, was used for infiltration basins, which reduced stormwater runoff by almost half. This served the dual purpose of reusing materials and improving the site geography while reducing environmental impact.

A robust commissioning program rein­forced efficient building operation, making sure design measures would improve the indoor environment and occupant produc­tivity, extend equipment life, and reduce the need for ongoing maintenance.

LEED Platinum Hawaii ANG project

The project, completed in January 2014, is the Air National Guard’s first LEED Platinum facility.


 

PREMIUM ON SPACE

Innovative engineering has helped HIANG maximize the facility’s value. Space carries a premium price in an island community, and the hangar design for the F-22 beddown enables aircraft to be aligned back-to-back for engine maintenance. This means six jets are housed in a far more effi­cient orientation. The 180-ft-span open-bay hangar uses vertical-lift fabric doors, which were selected to make the most of limited real estate. The fabric doors do not require door pockets or horizontal stacking space in the 42,785-ft² hangar.

Secure power supply was another impor­tant sustainability consideration. Primary connections for power and communica­tions were placed underground. When combined with on-site renewable energy systems, the squadrons will have an improved ability to sustain functionality during security- or weather-related chal­lenges. The facility also is strengthened by having the capacity to operate while off the grid. The project fits into a series of efforts to bolster energy security through the use of microgrids and the development of a Net Zero energy master plan for HIANG.

 

AESTHETICS THAT DELIVER

Design decisions were often driven by occupant needs. The two-story squadron operations portion, for instance, features a covered lanai at the first floor entrance and an exterior break area with shading trellis. This offers comfortable spaces that capital­ize on the pleasant tropical environment. A covered outdoor observation deck on the second floor faces east toward the taxiway and runway, adjacent to the squadron oper­ations break room. Horizontal wall panels, hip roofs and consistent materials, textures and colors create a distinctive architectural character varying from the typical squad­ron operations/aircraft maintenance unit hangars while still complementing existing Hickam structures.

In designing the new facility special attention was paid to the aesthetics of surrounding buildings. Its architecture pays homage to the base’s Art Deco style while contributing to energy efficiency through elements such as roofing materials with high solar reflectance to reduce heat island effect. Exterior finishes using regionally sourced masonry include styles and details that complement existing structures. The beddown design established a precedent for architectural detailing, massing, entry style, materials, textures and colors that will be applied to new construction and renovations elsewhere on the base.

Through the use of flexible design and innovative engineering, the Air National Guard’s first LEED Platinum facility sets a high standard in sustainable flightline facilities that can support mission readiness while reducing long-term operating costs.

  


 

Mark Zimmerman, P.E., DBIA, LEED AP, M.SAME, is Associate Project Manager, DOD Projects Director, Burns & McDonnell; 816-822-3847, or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..